Addressing Contract Cheating


The ‘Addressing Contract Cheating’ group is an ENAI working group dedicated to discussions on contract cheating that was formed as a result of a discussion of ENAI members at the 5th International Day of Action Against Contract Cheating Twenty Live in 20 broadcast sessions.


The mission of the group is to research, discuss, and educate about different aspects of contract cheating such as prevention, detection,  reaction, assimilating and assisting with policy documents, and pedagogical strategies that can decrease the risk of contract cheating in different countries and institutions.

Defining Contract Cheating

In the ENAI Glossary, the term contract cheating is defined as:

  • Form of academic misconduct when a person uses a third party to assist them to produce work, whether or not payment or favour is involved.

The Addressing Contract Cheating group, through process of review and discussion, has updated the definition to read as follows:

  • Form of academic misconduct when a person uses an undeclared and/or unauthorized third party to assist them to produce work for academic credit or progression, whether or not payment or other favour is involved.

Examples of contract cheating behaviour may include:

  • Submitting an essay bought from an essay-mill
  • Stylistic changes during proofreading including lexical and syntactic ones (e.g. word choice, sentence structure, and figurative language) not reflecting an individual author’s use of words to convey the meaning
    • Proofreading refers to increasing readability of the paper with regards to some minor linguistic changes with the original text. Please note, journals usually encourage proofreading as they aim to increase readability of papers that they publish whereas institutions may restrict it for student assignments because the cognitive aim of a writing task is assessing students’ progress in writing. It is important to check policies and clearly indicate that the submitted work is proofread. However, proofreading should never end up with main argument and/or concluding remark changes in the text; otherwise, this will be considered as plagiarism.
  • A parent/partner/spouse/sibling/friend either sharing previous work or assisting in current work
  • Submitting coursework, subject outline, slides to essay/answer services in exchange for solutions
  • Outsourcing assignments to ghostwriters on freelance services
  • Posting exam questions on ‘homework’ sites


  • Sonja Bjelobaba (Head)
  • Mairéad Boland
  • Özgür Çelik
  • Ruben Comas
  • Robin Crockett
  • Sandie Denn
  • Michael Draper
  • Teddi Fishman
  • Irene Glendinning
  • Sue Hackett
  • Zeenath Reza Khan
  • Veronika Kralikova
  • Thomas Lancaster
  • Olumide Popoola
  • Salim Razi
  • Shiva Sivasubramaniam
  • Kübra Uğurlu
  • Regina Valutyte
  • Lorna Waddington

Would you like to join the group? Please, contact Sonja Bjelobaba.