ENAI Working Group

Addressing Unauthorised Content Generation

The Addressing Unauthorised Content Generation working group, previously known as ‘Addressing Contract Cheating’ group, is an ENAI working group dedicated to addressing unauthorized content generation, such as contract cheating and unethical and unauthorized use of AI tools. The group was formed as a result of a discussion of ENAI members at the 5th International Day of Action Against Contract Cheating Twenty Live in 20 broadcast sessions


  • Sonja Bjelobaba, Uppsala University, Sweden (head)
  • Brenda Stoesz, University of Manitoba, Canada
  • Irene Glendinning, Coventry University, United Kingdom
  • Kübra Uğurlu, Özyeğin University, Türkiye
  • Lorna Waddington, School of History, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
  • Mairéad Boland, Quality and Qualifications Ireland, Ireland
  • Michael Draper, Swansea University, United Kingdom
  • Olumide Popoola, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom
  • Özgür Çelik, Balikesir University, Türkiye
  • Regina Valutyte
  • Robin Crockett, University of Northampton, United Kingdom
  • Ruben Comas, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain
  • Salim Razı, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Türkiye
  • Sandie Dann, Loughborough University, United Kingdom
  • Shiva Sivasubramaniam, University of Derby, United Kingdom
  • Sue Hackett, Quality and Qualifications Ireland (Ireland)
  • Teddi Fishman, United States of America
  • Thomas Lancaster, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
  • Veronika Králíková, Mendel University, Czechia
  • Zeenath Reza Khan, University of Wollongong in Dubai, United Arab Emirates


The Addressing Unauthorised Content Generation Working Group (AUCG WG) aims to 1) research, discuss and educate about different aspects of unauthorised content generation such as contract cheating and unauthorised usage of AI tools, such as prevention, detection and reaction; 2) assimilate and assist with policy documents and pedagogical strategies that can decrease the risk of unauthorised content generation in different countries and institutions.

Definition of Unauthorised Content Generation
Unauthorised content generation (UCG) is the production of academic work, in whole or part, for academic credit, progression or award, whether or not a payment or other favour is involved, using unapproved or undeclared human or technological assistance.

⸺ Addressing Unauthorised Content Generation Working Group

Updated definition of the term of contract cheating
Form of academic misconduct when a person uses an undeclared and/or unauthorized third party to assist them to produce work for academic credit or progression, whether or not payment or other favour is involved.

⸺ Addressing Contract Cheating Working Group

Outputs and results

Examples of UCG behaviour may include

  • Submitting an essay bought from an essay-mill
  • Stylistic changes during proofreading, including lexical and syntactic ones (e.g. word choice, sentence structure, and figurative language) not reflecting an individual author’s use of words to convey the meaning
    • Proofreading refers to increasing the readability of the paper with regard to some minor linguistic changes in the original text. Please note, journals usually encourage proofreading as they aim to increase the readability of papers that they publish, whereas institutions may restrict it for student assignments because the cognitive aim of a writing task is assessing students’ progress in writing. It is important to check policies and clearly indicate that the submitted work is proofread. However, proofreading should never end up with the main argument and/or concluding remark changes in the text; otherwise, this will be considered as plagiarism.
  • A parent/partner/spouse/sibling/friend either sharing previous work or assisting in current work
  • Submitting coursework, subject outline, slides to essay/answer services in exchange for solutions
  • Outsourcing assignments to ghostwriters on freelance services
  • Posting exam questions on ‘homework’ sites
  • Unauthorised outsourcing of the assignment to the AI tools

ENAI Working Groups

All groups are open to ENAI members and supporters, as well as anyone else who wants to contribute to the group activities. Anyone who is interested in joining any of the working group, is invited to contact the head of the group.

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