Withdrawing or removing a published paper from the research record because the data or results have been found to be unreliable or because the paper involves research misconduct. Journals publish retraction notices and identify retracted papers in electronic databases to alert the scientific community about problems with the retracted papers.

Adapted from: David B. Resnik: Glossary of Commonly Used Terms in Research Ethics. National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Institutes of Health, May 2015,

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