Synonyms: Augmented publicationAuto-plagiarismCovert duplicationDuplicate publicationDuplicationRecycle [plagiarism]Self-plagiarismText-recycling

A published work (or substantial sections from a published work) is/are published more than once (in the same or another language) without adequate acknowledgment of the source/cross-referencing/justification. It is also when the same (or substantially overlapping) data is presented in more than one publication without adequate cross-referencing/justification, particularly when this is done in such a way that reviewers/readers are unlikely to realise that most or all the findings have been published before.


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